An endgame study, or just study, is a composed chess endgame position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find a way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
Composed studies predate the modern form of chess. Shatranj studies exist in manuscripts from the 9th century, and the earliest treatises on modern chess by the likes of Luis Ramirez Lucena and Pedro Damiano (late 15th and early 16th century) also include studies. However, these studies often include superfluous pieces, added to make the position look more "game-like", but which take no part in the actual solution (something that is never done in the modern study). Various names were given to these positions (Damiano, for example, called them "subtleties"); the first book which called them "studies" appears to be Chess Studies, an 1851 publication by Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz, which is sometimes also regarded as the starting point for the modern endgame study. The form is considered to have been raised to an art in the late 19th century, with A. A. Troitsky and Henri Rinck particularly important in this respect.
In art, a study is a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece, or as visualnotes. Studies are often used to understand the problems involved in rendering subjects and to plan the elements to be used in finished works, such as light, color, form, perspective and composition. Studies can have more impact than more-elaborately planned work, due to the fresh insights the artist gains while exploring the subject. The excitement of discovery can give a study vitality. Even when layers of the work show changes the artist made as more was understood, the viewer shares more of the artist's sense of discovery. Written notes alongside visual images add to the import of the piece as they allow the viewer to share the artist's process of getting to know the subject.
Studies inspired some of the first 20th century conceptual art, where the creative process itself becomes the subject of the piece. Since the process is what is all-important in studies and conceptual art, the viewer may be left with no material object of art.
In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most often, each card bears one of several pips (symbols) showing to which suit it belongs; the suit may alternatively or additionally be indicated by the color printed on the card. The rank for each card is determined by the number of pips on it. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. Unless playing with multiple decks, there is exactly one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit, often called jokers.
Various languages have different terminology for suits such as colors, signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are generally divided into two or three general suit-systems. The older Latin suits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suit-systems. The French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are generally considered a separate system on its own.
Juggling clubs are a prop used by jugglers and can also mean a social organisation where jugglers meet to practice juggling skills. Juggling clubs are often simply called clubs by jugglers and sometimes are referred to as pins or batons by non-jugglers. Clubs are one of the three most popular props used by jugglers; the others being balls and rings.
A typical club is in the range of 50 centimetres (20in) long, weighs between 200 and 300 grams (7.1 and 10.6oz), is slim at the "handle" end, and has its center of balance nearer the wider "body" end. The definition of a club is somewhat ambiguous; sticks or rods are allowed under the current Juggling Information Service (JIS) rules for juggling world records.
A juggling club's shape is similar to a bowling pin's and an Indian club's. Modern juggling clubs are, however, distinct from these objects because they differ in the materials they are made of, the way they are constructed, their weight and weight distribution, and are therefore not usually interchangeable.
In addition to football, Bond participated in both winter and spring track, and Ski Club throughout high school ... She is also a member of the Social Studies, Math and NationalHonorSocieties. Brand was the secretary of Interact Club with Rotary during her senior year and a coach for Special Olympics bowling in the fall.
“You need to know how the body works, you need to know how the motion is supposed to work in regard to the biofeedback, you need to know how the club is affecting what the ball is doing,” Mercieca said of his interest in the study of biomechanics ...Bath at Gold CoastCountry Club.
Visit www.sapaac.org (Stanford Asian Pacific American Alumni Club) to find out more about the coalition’s efforts to advocate for Asian American Studies at Stanford ... After graduating, I worked with others in the Stanford Asian Pacific American Alumni Club (SAPAAC) to support the ...
Following high school, Matsko said she plans to attend Pitt-Johnstown to study engineering while considering any opportunity to play lacrosse at the club-team level ... field as a possible club-team member after her somewhat surprising and fulfilling rise to team captain at Latrobe.
Mays and about the lynching of African American women in America. The coalition made a presentation on its program to the GreenwoodRotary Club last week. “We study the history not only to understand history but to understand why things might be like they are now,” said Sally Kauffmann, another organizer with the coalition, during the presentation.
The Rotary Club of Aiken set records Tuesday with its program to support higher education, distributing scholarships worth a total of $115,000 to 23 local high school seniors Monday at NewberryHall...Morris plans to study exercise science, and her goal is to become a physical therapist ... The focus of his studies will be international business.