An endgame study, or just study, is a composed chess endgame position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find a way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
Composed studies predate the modern form of chess. Shatranj studies exist in manuscripts from the 9th century, and the earliest treatises on modern chess by the likes of Luis Ramirez Lucena and Pedro Damiano (late 15th and early 16th century) also include studies. However, these studies often include superfluous pieces, added to make the position look more "game-like", but which take no part in the actual solution (something that is never done in the modern study). Various names were given to these positions (Damiano, for example, called them "subtleties"); the first book which called them "studies" appears to be Chess Studies, an 1851 publication by Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz, which is sometimes also regarded as the starting point for the modern endgame study. The form is considered to have been raised to an art in the late 19th century, with A. A. Troitsky and Henri Rinck particularly important in this respect.
In art, a study is a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece, or as visualnotes. Studies are often used to understand the problems involved in rendering subjects and to plan the elements to be used in finished works, such as light, color, form, perspective and composition. Studies can have more impact than more-elaborately planned work, due to the fresh insights the artist gains while exploring the subject. The excitement of discovery can give a study vitality. Even when layers of the work show changes the artist made as more was understood, the viewer shares more of the artist's sense of discovery. Written notes alongside visual images add to the import of the piece as they allow the viewer to share the artist's process of getting to know the subject.
Studies inspired some of the first 20th century conceptual art, where the creative process itself becomes the subject of the piece. Since the process is what is all-important in studies and conceptual art, the viewer may be left with no material object of art.
In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most often, each card bears one of several pips (symbols) showing to which suit it belongs; the suit may alternatively or additionally be indicated by the color printed on the card. The rank for each card is determined by the number of pips on it. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. Unless playing with multiple decks, there is exactly one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit, often called jokers.
Various languages have different terminology for suits such as colors, signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are generally divided into two or three general suit-systems. The older Latin suits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suit-systems. The French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are generally considered a separate system on its own.
Juggling clubs are a prop used by jugglers and can also mean a social organisation where jugglers meet to practice juggling skills. Juggling clubs are often simply called clubs by jugglers and sometimes are referred to as pins or batons by non-jugglers. Clubs are one of the three most popular props used by jugglers; the others being balls and rings.
A typical club is in the range of 50 centimetres (20in) long, weighs between 200 and 300 grams (7.1 and 10.6oz), is slim at the "handle" end, and has its center of balance nearer the wider "body" end. The definition of a club is somewhat ambiguous; sticks or rods are allowed under the current Juggling Information Service (JIS) rules for juggling world records.
A juggling club's shape is similar to a bowling pin's and an Indian club's. Modern juggling clubs are, however, distinct from these objects because they differ in the materials they are made of, the way they are constructed, their weight and weight distribution, and are therefore not usually interchangeable.
An evening of proclamations, pop-up presentations, singing and conviviality made up the Rotary Club of Kent, Ohio’s 100th anniversary, Saturday which, because of the COVID-19 pandemic was actually celebrated a year late ... Donations by previous Kent Rotary presidents, Hatch said, enable the club to distribute copies for free to all members.
As a crowd gathered at the NationalPress Club to celebrate the findings of a new study on women CEOs and where they stand in the C-suite, the numbers showed incremental growth but were surprisingly low ...In a world where new studies show men are being left behind in educational systems, men are still currently leagues ahead in the boardroom.
After months of physical therapy filled with plyometrics, biking and strengthening exercises, she has since returned to full strength, playing with her Beadling club team for the past several weeks and preparing for her next chapter in Division I soccer ... I play club with them on Beadling GA. What do you plan to study?.
The worst feeling I’ve ever had with a golf club in my hand? I’m so glad you asked! ... After 20 minutes of pure torture, Dave encouraged me to hang my clubs up for the afternoon, motioning me back to his studio, where we were set to take a handful of minutes to study my swing from videos he’d grabbed.
“When you talk about fashion and a runway show, you almost have to be like a DJ studying and spending 10,000 hours in the club, because you have a very narrow hole to thread through,” the designer explained ... ....
Presenting the items to the club in Accra on Saturday, Boadu who is currently studying at the Kingston University in London said she donated the items to support the development of children in the sports. "These children are the future ... .
Politics McConaughey not running for governor of Texas. The actor had been considered a wild card in the 2022 race. Matthew McConaughey pictured in 2020. ... McConaughey, who won an Oscar for his performance in 2013’s “Dallas Buyers Club,“ said he‘d spent the past two years trying to listen and learn, as well as studying local and national politics ... .
arms supplies to Ukraine are leading to a situation in which, as Putin phrased it in remarks to the Valdai Discussion Club in October 2021. “The formal membership [of Ukraine] in NATO may fail to take place, but the military development of the territory is already underway.
If the time should ever come, anywhere, when this level of organized underground resistance is called for, then pick up these books and study how it was once done” (ix) ... As Gordon has done in his other translations, he has included thought-provoking questions for self-study which also would stimulate valuable discussion in a book club.